Today, in many places on Earth, fresh water demands begin to exceed its availability, and this situation is unlikely to improve. Currently more than a billion people around the globe suffer from water deficiency. According to the UN, by 2025 nearly half of the globe will either suffer from serious congestion, or the planet will face a complete water deficiency. By midcentury, three fourths of the population would have to deal with the problem of water shortage.
Scientists expect that water deficiency will increase because the population is growing, and many people are getting richer (which increases the water demand). Global climate change also leads to desertification and reduced water supply in many areas. Moreover, a lot of sources of water are threatened by pollution effluents and industrial wastes, flush fertilizer from agriculture and penetration of salt water through groundwater pumping.
Since the problem of water shortage can result in various diseases, starvation, and political conflicts, failure to take necessary measures can lead to severe aftermaths. Government officials should formulate plans to implement technological, economic and political actions that will ensure water security in present and future.
Global freshwater resources are under a threat because its need increased in many areas. More and more people need more water. Also, due to the climate change, it is likely that the droughts will emerge and spread. The authorities have to decide how to get enough water, so that it does not destroy natural ecosystems. Application of new improved methods of desalination will help to prevent shortages of water and increase its availability. However, government officials at all levels ought to begin forming appropriate policies and carrying out investments in the infrastructure of water supply.
To understand the global problem of water supply, we should calculate how much fresh water is required per one person, and to explore factors that impede the water supply and increase demand for it in different parts of the world. Some researchers believe that an average person requires at least 1 thousand cubic meters of water per year, which he/she uses for drinking, hygiene and agricultural food production.
It is especially difficult to supply people from dry areas of underdeveloped countries with the required amount of water, because the demand for water there is intense, and its availability is limited. Such rivers as the Nile, the Jordan River, the Yangtze and the Ganges, are becoming shallower for the most time of the year. In New Delhi, Beijing and many other rapidly growing cities, the level of groundwater is decreasing. However, it is clearly a wrong assumption that developed countries do not suffer from the water shortage problem. Recently, even in well-developed countries, this problem has become more acute. For example, a severe drought in the U.S. recently brought water deficit in the state of GA and spacious areas of South-West.