The terrorist threat is now considered to be an everyday hazard. The risk of death caused by terrorists has become an integral component. Such a phenomenon was never as acute as now when it reached an extremely high level of risk in recent years. The practice of terror from year to year is becoming more sophisticated and cynical. In the last century, the main forms of attacks were hostage taking and explosion in a public place. These forms of terrorism are considered classic nowadays. The give way to destruction of residential and office buildings and neighborhoods, chemical and biological attacks, cyber attacks and so on.
Entering the new millennium, humanity came face to face with the most dangerous global challenge of terrorism. With each passing day, it is becoming more widespread in the planetary scale. Terrorist methods practiced by many extremist organizations around the world show that terrorism is an international phenomenon. Both qualitative and quantitative changes take place. The number of extremist organizations is increasing; they expand its geography and complicated structure, improve their methods.
Terrorist acts are getting more and more thought-out and violent, as terrorists use the most modern technology, weapons and ways of communication. By its nature, terrorism is a socio-political phenomenon that is based on the conflict, and expressed in the long confrontation between two or more parties.
Along with the need for urgent measures to combat terrorism, it is necessary to identify and investigate the factors that give rise to this dangerous phenomenon: the socio-political, historical, ideological, and economic factors. Without the study and analysis of these factors, a complete victory over terrorism is not possible. It is also necessary to identify an agreed definition of “terrorism”, which would bring the anti-terrorist struggle out of the circle of theoretical discussions on the level of the real, effective actions to combat terrorism.
Terrorism has a lot of varieties, but in any form, it is the most dangerous consequence of social and political problems of the XXI century. The problem of terrorism is inextricably linked to the main spheres of life of the world community: international relations, politics, religion, economy. This relationship is reflected in the existence of different types of terrorism, which include: domestic, international, national, religious, economic terrorism.
If to trace the historical development of terrorism, it is obvious that it is an integral part of social processes. Moreover, from an ethical point of view, it was always viewed not only as a negative but was often justified and approved of by society (f.e. national liberation movements). Citizens, who do not agree with the current constitution, ruling ideology or government actions, will always be ready to use violent methods to defend their point of view. However, such violence is not acceptable in any form and in any society. The study of this highly negative social and political phenomenon and its historical development is the key to creating ways and methods to combat, control and prevent terrorism.